The Team

If someone contacts me about potentially wanting support and I am not available and/or I feel I’m not the best suited Psychologist to help them, then I always try my best to help them find someone who is well matched and available.

 

To enable me to best help the full range of people who reach out to me, I have hand selected some other experienced HCPC registered Psychologists with a range of skills and clinical experience to join my team. Each member of the team offers a free 15 minute consultation, so you can assess fit before booking any paid for sessions. Please read more about each member of the team below:

 

Dr Kerry Cope- Perinatal Psychologist and Loss Specialist.

Dr Kerry Cope, Perinatal Psychologist and Loss Specialist

Kerry is a Clinical Psychologist and EMDR therapist with over 15 years experience of supporting people with mental health difficulties. She has worked with children, adolescents and adults with a range of difficulties, including anxiety, anger, low mood, grief, self-esteem, and trauma reactions including PTSD.

She offers support for a range of difficulties. However, her areas of special interest are in supporting individuals with traumatic experiences, as well as mental health difficulties experienced in the perinatal period.
She is trained and experienced in a variety of psychological models. She works in an integrative manner, drawing upon these models to create a individualised plan specific to your wants and needs. The main models she uses include: Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT),  Compassion Focussed Therapy (CFT), and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). She is also a trained facilitator in the Circle of Security Parenting Programme. This is an attachment-based parenting education programme that helps parents better understand and build on their relationships with their children, by supporting parents to understand their children’s emotional world.

Kerry is able to offer sessions on Tuesday evenings or Friday during working hours. For individuals who are not self-funding sessions, she is registered with both AXA and Aviva.

 

Dr Emma Hoogerwerf-  Perinatal Psychologist and Loss Specialist.

Emma is a HCPC registered clinical psychologist with over 14 years’ experience of working with adults, children and their families within the NHS, as well as private and charitable sectors.

Image of Dr Emma Hoogerwerf, a clinical psychologist specialising in perinatal mental health.

Dr Emma Hoogerwerf, Clinical Psychologist

Alongside her private work, Emma works as the lead psychologist in an NHS perinatal mental health service, supporting birthing people and their partners from preconception all the way through to parenting in the early years. Within this role, Emma supports people with a range of difficulties, including anxiety, depression, psychosis, OCD and trauma.

Prior to her current role, Emma led specialist teamswithin a children’s physical health service, where she developed a special interest in supporting parents whose babies had received difficult or complex diagnoses.

Emma has also worked within general child and adolescent mental health services, specialist children’s trauma services, including with fostered and adopted children and within various adult mental health services.  

Areas of Special Interest

  • Preconception, including fertility issues
  • Perinatal anxiety and depression
  • Complicated pregnancies
  • Premature births
  • Perinatal loss
  • Birth trauma
  • Parent-Infant attachment
  • Parenting
  • Interpersonal Difficulties

Emma enjoys working with people with a range of difficulties but has a special interest and strong background in perinatal mental health, parent-infant attachment, parenting, and parent-infant trauma and loss work.

Working extensively with the parent-child relationship has influenced and informed Emma’s practice over the years, leading to continued interest in the role of early experiences in childhood and how they may influence the relationships we hold with our adult self and with others.

Emma is a sensitive, thoughtful and compassionate psychologist who individually tailors assessment and treatment for her clients. As an experienced and truly integrative practitioner, Emma draws on a number of different evidence based therapeutic perspectives including, Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT), Psychodynamic Psychotherapy, Compassion Focused Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, CBT, Schema, and attachment models.

Therapy can be hard work, and can involve confronting difficult thoughts, emotions, memories, and behaviours. Emma’s philosophy is that a strong, safe and secure therapeutic relationship is the cornerstone of her work. Emma therefore focuses on understanding your personal story and how you came to reach this point in your life. Emma will then use strategies that are specifically targeted to your unique situation and therapeutic hopes. Emma is particularly skilled in empathically challenging any unhelpful or distorted thinking styles.

Further training

Emma has completed further training in Eye Movement Desensitisation & Reprograming (EMDR), Systemic Therapy and Dyadic Developmental Psychotherapy (DDP).

Emma only accepts self- referrals. She has availability on Thursday daytimes and Tuesday afternoons/ early evening,Thursday daytimes and alternate Fridays.

 

Dr Fiona Hill- Perinatal and Child Psychologist

Dr Fiona Hill, Perinatal and Child Psychologist

I’m a senior HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist with 15+ years experience working in a range of specialist services in the NHS.  My passion lies in supporting parents in the perinatal period, helping make sense of difficulties, and reducing parental guilt/shame. I offer a warm and relaxed therapeutic space for a range of difficulties including post-natal depression, anxiety, trauma, loss, and adjustment to parenting.  I have additional specialist training in supporting parent infant relationships, infant mental health and promoting secure attachments.

I currently work as a senior psychologist in an NHS Parent and Infant Relationship Service (PAIRS) offering therapeutic support to parents with infants from conception to three years of age. I also offer therapeutic support to those with Birth Trauma via the Maternity & Neonatal Psychological Intervention (MNPI) service. Prior to this I have significant experience working across a range of services including Neurodevelopmental services, Child and Adolescent Mental Health services, specialist parenting services, as well as private practice.

The main therapeutic models/interventions I offer include; Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT), & Video Interactive Guidance (VIG).  I am also trained in Circle of Security Parenting (COSP), Newborn Behaviour Observation (NBO), Solihull Approach, Incredible Years & Reflective Parenting.

Fiona accepts self-funding clients and would consider registering with insurance companies, as required. Fiona currently has space online on Friday mornings.

 

 

Dr Margy Bowes- Clinical Psychologist offering adult ADHD assessments and post-diagnostic support.

Dr Margy Bowes, Clinical Psychologist

Dr Margy Bowes is an HCPC registered Highly Specialist Clinical Psychologist. She has worked in NHS psychology services for nearly two decades in a variety of settings, across the lifespan. These include occupational health, trauma services and older adult services. She has also worked in psychology education, specialising in trauma informed practice and national CBT training. She currently works for a government department in an occupational health setting, supporting employees with work-related trauma and other mental health conditions. Having completed ADHD training a number of years ago, she understands the impact that unrecognised neurodivergence can have on an individual’s day-to-day functioning, relationships, career and psychological wellbeing. She developed her organisation’s ADHD referral pathway and offers psychologically informed ADHD diagnostic assessments in line with the NICE guidelines.

Dr Lisa Ball- Perinatal and Adult Psychologist

Dr Lisa Ball, Perinatal Psychologist

Hi, I am a Clinical Psychologist and psychotherapist with 30 years of experience working in adult and child services in the NHS and in private practice.

I am particularly passionate about perinatal mental health and have experience of working with parents from conception through to their infant’s 2nd birthday in both NHS setting and private practice. This includes working with parents who have experienced loss, trauma and difficulties conceiving, depression, anxiety including intrusive thoughts and postpartum psychosis.

I have training in several psychological models that I draw upon to meet the needs of the people I work with. These are:

EMDR (Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing)

Psychodynamic

ISTDP (attachment focused intensive short term dynamic psychotherapy)

Mindfulness behaviour cognitive therapy

Compassionate Focused Therapy

Emotional Focussed Therapy for couples

All of my training draws on the principles of attachment theory and the important need to connect with others. I believe that people fundamentally do their best to survive difficult and emotionally painful experiences. In doing so, people automatically develop coping strategies to manage their thoughts and feelings. Sometimes these coping strategies can lead to further difficulties and impact on day-to-day life and our cherished relationships. It’s at times like this that you may seek help from someone like me.

I have availability on Monday and Friday daytimes and will consider evenings, where necessary. I accept self-funding referrals and I am registered with BUPA, AXA, Vitality, WPA, Aviva and Helix.

 

Dr Emma Fowler- Adult Psychologist (Trauma and Midlife)

Dr Emma Fowler, Adult Psychologist

I am a Clinical Psychologist with over a decade of experience working in mental health services.  I work with adults experiencing a range of difficulties and I have a specialist interest in working with women in mid-life – and beyond – who are experiencing anxiety or struggling with the impact of trauma.

Many of us encounter times in our lives when it is difficult to resolve problems on our own or to heal from past experiences without support.   I can work with you to develop a rich understanding of what has happened and what might be preventing you from moving forward.  Together, we can use this understanding to identify, and achieve, meaningful goals that enable you to live life to the fullest.

I am able to blend expertise in evidence-based therapies such as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, including Trauma Focussed Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy, Compassion-Focussed Therapy, Schema Therapy and Narrative Therapy to create individualised treatment plans that will help you to feel better and experience greater well-being.  It is central to my practice to offer a safe, compassionate and non-judgemental space within sessions.

I offer sessions online or in person near Wilmslow. My current availability is Tuesday and Wednesday evenings and Saturday morning. I accept self-funding referrals and am an approved BUPA provider.

 

Dr Rebecca Tucker- Perinatal Psychologist

Image of Dr Rebecca Tucker, a qualified Clinical Psychologist with HCPC registration, offering flexible and integrative therapy approaches for individuals with a range of presentations, including perinatal mental health, trauma, anxiety, and depression.

Dr Rebecca Tucker, Clinical Psychologist

I am a qualified Clinical Psychologist with HCPC registration. Alongside my private work, I work in an NHS specialist perinatal mental health service, supporting parents from conception until baby is one. I have worked in a range of NHS and independent settings including forensic mental health and rehabilitation services. I have experience providing psychological therapy and supporting people with a range of presentations including: trauma, anxiety, depression, psychosis, anger, bereavement and relationship difficulties and I have a special interest in perinatal mental health, birth trauma and loss.

I am trained in and regularly draw on the following therapeutic approaches:

  • Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)
  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
  • Compassion Focussed Therapy (CFT)
  • Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT)
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
  • Couples therapy.

I work in a flexible and integrative way, always seeking to adapt my approach to meet the individuals’ needs. I consider myself to be compassionate, non-judgemental and curious in my approach. I seek to always provide a therapeutic and safe space in which individuals feel able to explore current difficulties and are able to work towards their personal goals. I am available for remote sessions only and offer a free consultation, providing space to explore if we are a good match for therapy.

I only accept self-funding referrals. I have availability on Mondays 4.30- 7pm.

 

Dr Estelle Verdi- Perinatal Psychologist

Dr Estelle Verdi, Perinatal Psychologist

Dr Estelle Verdi is a HCPC registered Counselling Psychologist with 12 years experience working within the NHS with adults in a number of roles.

Estelle worked within a Specialist Traumatic Stress Service with a focus on delivering evidence based interventions for people experiencing symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Subsequently, Estelle worked within a Specialist Community Perinatal Mental Health Team within the NHS for 5 years offering parent infant and mental health interventions to parents with babies up to 1 year old.

Estelle currently works as a Prinicipal Psychologist leading a specialist service within the NHS for women experiencing birth trauma and baby loss.

Estelle is accredited in the following therapy models:

· Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy (EMDR) which is recommended in the NICE guidelines for the treatment of PTSD.

· Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) which is an evidence based intervention to improve the parent infant relationship.

Estelle is trained in the following therapy models:

· Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

· Compassion Focussed Therapy

· Circle of Security – a parent infant attachment intervention

Estelle offers model specific or integrated therapy depending on your individual needs after assessment and agreement with you.

Estelle accepts self funding referrals and is registered with BUPA. Estelle has availability on Mondays for remote appointments.

 

Dr Nicola Wright- Perinatal Psychologist

Dr Nicola Wright

Dr Nicola Wright, HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist

Hello, I’m Dr Nicola Wright. I am a HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist with over 14 years’ experience of working in the NHS. In addition to my private practice, I am part of an NHS Specialist Perinatal Mental Health Service, offering support to parents from conception until their baby turns two. My extensive professional background includes working in diverse NHS and independent settings, such as Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and third sector charities.

Throughout my career, I have provided psychological guidance to individuals facing various challenges, such as perinatal trauma, anxiety, depression, Postpartum psychosis, Perinatal loss and relationship difficulties. My passion lies in perinatal mental health where I have a special interest in the parent-infant relationship and how understanding our own thoughts, feelings and behaviours can impact on our relationship with our children. I aim to help parents understand some of the big and complicated feelings that come up when becoming a parent, as well as supporting them and their baby as their feelings develop.

My approach is flexible and adaptable, always tailored to suit the unique needs of every client. I typically offer an assessment appointment where we consider your current strengths and difficulties as well as your history. We then develop a formulation together which helps us to understand and make sense of the current difficulties. Drawing from my training, experience, and expertise, I use an integrative therapeutic approach and regularly utilise the following models:

  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT),
  • Compassion Focussed Therapy (CFT),
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT),
  • Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT),
  • Circle of Security Parenting Intervention
  • Eye Movement and Desensitisation Reprocessing Therapy (EMDR)

In addition to my individual and group therapy work, I offer supervision to a variety of health professionals, including midwives, trainee clinical psychologist, nurses and Talking Therapies professionals. I provide training on specific topics such as perinatal anxiety, post-natal depression, attachment theory and intrusive thoughts in the perinatal period. I also offer consultation sessions to colleges to provide a protected space for psychological thinking.

Compassion, kindness, curiosity and a non-judgemental approach define my therapeutic demeanour. I am dedicated to creating a safe, comfortable and supportive environment that empowers individuals to explore their current challenges, reflect on how they can make changes and work towards achieving their personal goals.

Nicola accepts self funding referrals, is BUPA registered and would be happy to register with other insurance companies, if requested. She currently has availability on Tuesday afternoon, Tuesday evening or Wednesday evening.

 

 

Dr Shetal Patel – Perinatal Psychologist

Dr Shetal Patel, Perinatal Psychologist

Shetal is a HCPC accredited Clinical Psychologist, specialising in working with perinatal mental health difficulties, with over 20 years’ experience of working mental health. Alongside her private practice work, Shetal works as the Clinical Lead for the Hertfordshire NHS Perinatal Trauma and Loss Service. Shetal has recently returned from Sydney, Australia, where she worked in private practice and a perinatal charity (The Gidget Foundation). Shetal has also worked across various other NHS mental health settings, including Community Perinatal and Adult Mental Health Teams.
Shetal has post-qualification training in various evidence-based psychological interventions, including Eye Movement Desensitisation Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy , Attachment-Informed EMDR, Group Traumatic Episode Protocol (G-TEP), Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), Compassion Focussed Therapy (CFT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT) skills and Prolonged Grief Disorder Therapy (PGDT). Shetal also has training in attachment-focussed models, including Circle of Security (COS) and Video Interaction Guidance (VIG).
Shetal’s extensive training and experience means she is competently able work wide a wide range of presenting difficulties (e.g., anxiety, OCD, PTSD and trauma, depression, low self-esteem, grief and complex grief, anger difficulties), offering integrative therapy that is uniquely tailored to a client’s difficulties. Shetal is a compassionate, non-judgemental and flexible therapist, ensuring clients are offered high-quality care, grounded in research.
Shetal offers virtual appointments on Thursdays from 1 am to 4 pm and Fridays from 9 am to 3 pm. If you require a different appointment time, please mention this in your inquiry, as she may be able to accommodate your needs.

Dr Lauren Forrest – Perinatal Psychologist and EMDR trained Adult Psychologist

Dr Lauren Forrest – Clinical Psychologist

Lauren is a Clinical Psychologist who alongside private practice works within maternity & neonatal psychological interventions in Scotland. Within this role she provides support and psychological intervention for emotional difficulties related to complications during pregnancy, birth and neonatal inpatient care. She has a particular interest and expertise in birth and neonatal trauma , navigating pregnancy after loss and fear of childbirth (tokophobia).
Lauren completed her Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the University of Edinburgh in 2016 completing her specialist year  in a trauma-informed centre for women involved in the criminal justice system with complex needs. She has 12 years of experience working in the NHS within several specialist teams with varied presentations and complexity including complex trauma.
Lauren is a parent of 3 children and understands the great joy, but also the unique challenges and pressures that the perinatal period brings.  For her it continues to be a journey of transformation!
She considers it a real honor and privilege to come alongside a family at a time they likely feel really vulnerable.  She is passionate about supporting mums and dads navigate this period and unlock the power of self compassion and kindness towards themselves.
Lauren utilises models such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), Eye movement desensitisation reprocessing (EMDR), schema focused approaches and compassion focussed therapy (CFT) in an integrative and individually tailored way . She has additional training in Video Interactive Guidance (VIG) and Newborn Behavioural Observation (NBO).
Lauren focuses on developing the therapeutic relationship and making sure that you feel comfortable to talk about your experience at your own pace, in your own way. She will walk alongside you with warmth and compassion and will work with you collaboratively to make sense of your situation, and work on finding a new way forward in line with your goals. Lauren is registered with the Health Care Professionals Council (HCPC).
Lauren accepts self-funding and insurance funded referrals. She has daytime, evening weekend availability starting from 22nd July 2024.

Dr Naomi Parsons – Educational Psychologist supporting Children, Parents and Adults, including providing post-diagnostic support for ADHD.

Naomi is a trauma-informed Chartered Psychologist with a big heart for seeing people flourish. She offers coaching and therapy for individuals and groups.

Naomi has expertise and lived-experience in the following areas:
• Anxiety
• Chronic illness, invisible disabilities and long-term health conditions
• Miscarriage
• Birth trauma
• Post natal depression
• Matrescence (the extraordinary social, emotional and physical process
of becoming a mum)
• Parenting where a parent and/or child(ren) has additional needs
• Women with undiagnosed/suspected/late-diagnosed ADHD

Naomi has had the privilege of supporting families and schools for more than 20 years. She qualified as a HCPC Registered Practitioner Psychologist in 2013 after completing her doctoral training programme in Educational and Child Psychology.

Over the years, Naomi has developed a collaborative and empowering way of working, largely based upon Solution Focused Brief Therapy (SFBT), as well as Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and narrative therapy.

This approach explores what you want more of in your life and the strengths, skills and resources you already possess that can help you make the changes you want to see, even if you’ve forgotten about them or never even recognised them in yourself before. This facilitates therapeutic change during therapy and ADHD coaching.

Together, we will find a path that leads you to the life you want to live, in a way that’s just right for you and your circumstances.

Naomi has availability on Tuesdays and at weekends, She accepts self-funding and insurance referrals.

 

Dr Hoyin Chan – Adult Psychologist, Fluent in both English and Cantonese

Dr Hoyin Chan, Adult Psychologist

I am now a Principal Clinical Psychologist in the NHS. I am registered with the Health and Professional Care Council (HCPC) and I am trained in several therapeutic modalities:

  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
  • Compassion-Focused Therapy (CFT)

This diverse range of approaches allows me to tailor treatment plans to help you address your psychological needs, ranging from unmanageable stress to difficult childhood trauma, to being stuck in patterns of unsuccessful or broken relationships, in addition to depression and anxiety.

Over the years, I have worked in various clinical health services, including burns and plastics, respiratory, cancer and HIV services. I am passionate in working with people presenting with:

  • Life-changing physical health conditions
  • Physical health care-related psychological trauma (e.g. difficult surgeries and/or treatments)
  • Difficulties caring for family members who are experiencing ongoing health problems.

I work with adults and older adults. I am fluent in both English and Cantonese.

Hoyin accepts self-funding referrals and is registered with BUPA, AXA, Aviva, Vitality and WPA insurance. His availability is Monday daytime or evenings (currently 1pm and 2pm are available).

 

Dr Hannah Barnes- Adult Psychologist, Specialist expertise in medical and cancer related trauma

Dr Hannah Barnes, Adult Psychologist

I am a HCPC-registered senior Clinical Psychologist. Alongside supporting clients privately, I also work for a charity, providing psychological support to people affected by cancer. In this role I work both with the person diagnosed with cancer and their family or loved ones, to support them in adapting and coping at a difficult and worrying time.

I have worked in health and social care settings for the past 14 years in a range of settings including the NHS, the prison system, and third sector organisations. Having worked in psycho-oncology and in Intensive Care, I understand that having a frightening medical experience can leave you feeling overwhelmed and unable to move forward. I am passionate about helping people who have experienced trauma in relation to their physical health, and use evidence-based approaches to help you process such trauma and move forward in your life.

I also have experience providing psychological therapy and supporting people with a range of presentations including: anxiety, depression, bereavement and relationship difficulties and I have a special interest in trauma and working with people who are highly self-critical/perfectionist.

I am trained in a range of therapeutic approaches, including:

● Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)

● Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)

● Compassion Focussed Therapy (CFT)

● Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)

I aim to offer a supportive, compassionate, and safe space for you to explore your problems.

I work remotely only. I see self-funding clients and I am registered with WPA, AXA and BUPA. I work alternate Mondays and Monday evenings.

 

Dr Hannah Osbourne – Adult Psychologist

Hannah is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist with over 13 years working primarily with adults and families within the NHS.

Alongside her private work, Hannah works as a Consultant Clinical Psychologist within a general hospital supporting people with a wide range of difficulties. Within this role she specialises in working with people psychologically with a wide range of health conditions and injuries.

A friendly and experienced Consultant Clinical Psychologist, Dr. Hannah Osbourne, is highly skilled in providing psychological therapy for a wide range of problems. She has expertise in Cognitive Analytic Therapy, Compassion Focused Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR).

Dr Hannah Osbourne, Consultant Clinical Psychologist

She has worked within a variety of settings in the NHS since qualifying as a Clinical Psychologist in 2009. As a result she has extensive experience of delivering psychological therapy for a wide range of problems.

Hannah is Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) registered and a member of the EMDR Association. She has enhanced Disclosure and Barring (DBS) clearance.

Doctorate in Clinical Psychology; Lancaster University; 2009

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Advanced Skills Training, Contextual Science (accredited trainer), 2013

Postgraduate certificate in Clinical Neuropsychology; Bristol University, 2016

Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR); Sandi Richmond Institute (accredited trainer); 2021

Hannah is approachable, warm and down-to-earth. She understands that taking that first step to get help is hard but believes firmly that with the right support everyone can get back on track. She recognises that everyone is individual and unique and so need a thoughtful, tailored approach to get the most from therapy. Having experience in multiple therapies enables Hannah to be able to offer exactly what is needed for each person that she sees.

Hannah can provide; Cognitive Analytic Therapy, Compassion focused therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR).

Hannah accepts self-funding referrals and is registered with AXA, WPA and Vitality Insurance. She has availability Tuesdays to Fridays.

 

Dr Annika Amoako– Adult Psychologist

Dr Annika Amoako is a HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist with over 16 years’ experience of working

Dr Annika Amoako, HCPC Registered Clinical Psychologist

with adults. She is a friendly, empathetic, warm-natured, and down to earth practitioner. She has a particular interest in working with individuals who have experienced adverse health experiences and where there are strong body-mind links including individuals with health concerns.

She also has an interest in working with people who have experienced traumatic events, that have caused symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. She also has experience working with individuals during the perinatal period with distressing experiences such as sexual assault which has been retriggered in the perinatal period, birth trauma and attachment focused work.

Annika’s approach is multimodal and uses her specialist training in the following evidenced based modalities; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy (EMDR), Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) and Systemic Therapy (Family therapy).

Annika can draw upon her experience in different presentations and service settings and will individualize the approach to the client’s needs using a collaborative and compassionate approach.
Annika accepts self-funding referrals and is registered with BUPA and AXA insurance. She currently has availability on Fridays.

 

Dr Ash McKay – Perinatal Psychologist

Dr Ash McKay, Perinatal Psychologist

Ash is a Senior Clinical Psychologist with over 15 years experience of working within the NHS with adults with a range of presenting issues.

She has worked in a number of settings, including community mental health teams, Early Intervention in Psychosis teams, community rehabilitation teams, and perinatal mental health teams.

She has particular specialism in perinatal mental health, birth loss and birth trauma, PTSD, vicarious traumatisation and complex trauma.  Ash currently works as the Lead Psychologist in a NHS perinatal mental health team and maternal mental health service.

Ash draws on a variety of therapeutic approaches, including Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR), Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT).

Ash has availability online on Tuesday and Wednesday evenings. She currently only accepts self-funding clients.

 

Dr Olivia Hirst- Adult Psychologist.

Dr Olivia Hirst, Adult Psychologist

Olivia is a highly specialist Counselling Psychologist, with over 13 years experience of working with mental health within the NHS, voluntary sector, and privately.

She specialises in working with trauma, PTSD and c-PTSD, abuse, domestic and sexual violence, and long-term health conditions. She is also very experienced in supporting with anxiety and low mood.

Olivia is trained in a number of different evidence-based therapeutic approaches, which enables her to tailor the therapy to meet your needs. The therapy approaches include:

  • EMDR
  • Trauma focused CBT
  • ACT
  • Compassion Focused Therapy
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
  • Humanistic approaches

She offers a safe, compassionate and warm therapeutic space to help you explore and process your difficulties.

She is registered with the HCPC and is a chartered member of the British Psychological Society.

Olivia accepts self funding referrals and is also registered with AXA and BUPA insurance. She currently has availability during the day on a Friday. Olive offers both remote sessions and face to face support in a clinic in Hove, East Sussex.

 

Dr Samantha Gerdes  Adult Psychologist

Dr Samantha Gerdes, HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist

Dr Samantha Gerdes is a HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist, with experience working in a variety of mental health services in the UK. These include adult and older adult primary and secondary care services in the NHS, inpatient services, as well as a specialist trauma service for people suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Sam has trained in a range of psychological therapies including compassion-focused therapy (CFT), cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). She has also completed specialist training in trauma therapy including eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), trauma-focused CBT and trauma-focused CFT for complex PTSD.

Sam adopts a kind and compassionate approach within therapy, and she is trained to work with a wide range of mental health difficulties such as anxiety, self-esteem issues, low mood, PTSD, complex trauma, difficulties within interpersonal relationships as well as problems that might not fit into a neat box or ‘label’. Sam recognises that coming to therapy can sometimes feel daunting, therefore she works with each person to create a safe, accepting and non-judgemental therapeutic space by being open and thoughtful about whatever people bring to their therapy sessions.

Samantha accepts self-referrals and is registered with BUPA insurance. She has current availability on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays in the afternoon or in the evening (up to 6.30pm).

 

Dr Danielle Crane- Adult Psychologist- Currently closed to new referrals

Dr Danielle Crane, Adult Psychologist

I am a HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist. I feel incredibly privileged to be able to support people in their most vulnerable moments. I am committed to providing the best possible care and tailoring therapy to my client’s needs. I provide a safe, non-judgemental space and a warm, genuine approach to help clients work through things at their own pace.

I have experience working with children, adults, couples, and families and provide online therapy for a range of difficulties including, but not limited to: 

  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • Bereavements
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Depression
  • Relationship issues
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Substance Misuse

I tend to work integratively, drawing on the following approaches: 

  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
  • Trauma-Focussed CBT
  • Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT)
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
  • Compassion Focussed Therapy (CFT)
  • Motivational Interviewing
  • Narrative therapy
  • Systemic Family Therapy
  • Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) from May 

My qualifications include:

  • BSc Psychology and Sociology
  • PGDip Mental Health Practice
  • Doctorate in Clinical Psychology
  • Level 1 Systemic Family Therapy
  • PGDip Dialectical Behaviour Therapy

I have availability on Thursdays and Fridays. I am BUPA registered and willing to register with other insurance companies, if requested.

 

Zubeida Dasgupta– Child and Family Psychologist- Currently closed to new referrals

Zubeida Dasgupta, Child and Family Psychologist

Since qualifying as a practitioner psychologist in 2005, I have supported many children, young people and their families with a range of difficulties in clinic and in schools. I assess and treat the presenting need, so children and young people do not need a diagnosis to see me. I see children and their families when they are feeling sad, angry, scared or worried to an extent that it is impacting on their daily life. For example:

  • Stress, including exam stress
  • Mild anxiety and/or low mood
  • Phobias
  • Stress and anxiety following trauma
  • Finding it hard to make and maintain friendships
  • Finding it hard to name and regulate emotions

I also offer parenting support for:

  • Bonding and getting to know your baby
  • Managing exhaustion and support with persistent crying post-birth
  • Managing toddler tantrums
  • Pre/post neurodevelopmental assessments support eg. ADHD/Autism
  • Supporting your teenager with navigating the challenges of social media, revision, exams, mood swings

I draw on a range of models and approaches including attachment and trauma, cognitive behavioural, solution focused and motivational interviewing approaches. I also offer VIG and EMDR, as specific therapeutic approaches. I find that play, drawing and physical activities can help children and young people engage.

When you work with me, we start with an assessment which will involve meeting with you as parents and then with your child. This will help us work together to understand how these difficulties have come about and what is maintaining them. This will help us identify what yours and your child’s goals for change are and agree the most effective way to help, whether working with me or me signposting to other services. An assessment and verbal feedback takes between 2- 2.5 hours, usually over 2 or 3 sessions.

I qualified from Bristol University with a first class honours degree in Psychology. Following a happy teaching career, I trained as an Educational Psychologist at University College London. Since then I have qualified as a Video Interaction Guidance practitioner and also enjoy supervising and training practitioners nationally and internationally. I am registered with the British Psychological Society and HCPC.  I maintain my skills through regular CPD and supervision.

As a mother of 3, I understand the joys and challenges of parenting , the roadblocks that children and young people can experience and how support can help them navigate and learn from them effectively.

Zubeida only accepts self referrals. She offers both remote sessions and face-to-face sessions at a clinic in Hove, East Sussex. She is available during school hours.

 

Sarah Baillie- Perinatal and Early Years (age 0-5) Psychologist. Currently closed to new referrals

Sarah Baillie, Principal Clinical Psychologist

I am a Principal Clinical Psychologist and Team lead of an Infant Mental Health Service in the NHS. I have over 15 years’ experience working in the NHS, most of those working with parents in the perinatal period and early years. I specialise in therapeutic interventions that support and strengthen relationships between parents and infants, and in supporting parents manage mental health difficulties and difficult experiences that may be impacting
on their parenting journey.

I also have experience of developing and working in Maternity and Neonatal Psychology Services and can offer parents who have had a difficult birth or neonatal experience support to process these events.

I understand that pregnancy and the early weeks and months after a baby arrives can be difficult for a variety of reasons, and that people often need support to feel they are on the right track. Babies go through an incredible period of growth in these early years, and I want to help parents and carers to enjoy this time and support their babies development.

I am trained in a range of therapeutic interventions to do this, including: Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR), Circle of Security Parenting, Incredible Years Parenting, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), Reflective Parenting, Newborn Behavioural Observation (NBO), Touchpoints, and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT).

I hope to create a safe, therapeutic space where client’s goals can be prioritised and worked towards in a collaborative way. I offer online therapy in the evenings or Fridays.

I am HCPC registered and a member of the Association of Infant Mental Health and Association of Video Interaction Guidance.

Sarah accepts self funding referrals and would consider registering with insurance companies, where necessary. Sarah has availability on Friday mornings or on Monday and Tuesday evenings.

 

Dr Claire Vowell- Adult Psychologist. Currently closed to new referrals

Dr. Claire Vowell, Adult Psychologist

I’m Dr Claire Vowell, a Chartered Counselling Psychologist, registered with the HCPC.

I’m dedicated to helping individuals overcome various mental health challenges, including depression, anxiety disorders and grief.

With a background in the corporate world, I have a deep understanding of the pressures that can accompany professional life and can provide practical strategies to foster resilience and manage stress and burnout effectively. As a working mother myself, I understand the challenges of balancing work and family life. I have a particular interest in supporting working parents with their mental health, addressing issues like the loss of confidence, identity, and managing feelings of guilt.  I firmly believe that psychological support can be invaluable in this parenting journey.

My therapeutic approaches include Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), psychodynamic therapy, and person-centered therapy. I work collaboratively and integratively, customizing treatment to meet each individual’s unique goals and needs. I provide a safe, non-judgmental space for personal exploration and growth. I aim to help individuals not only overcome their immediate challenges but also develop the skills and insight needed for lasting change and personal growth.

If you’re seeking support to overcome depression, anxiety, grief, stress, burnout, or if you’re a working parent looking to navigate the complexities of balancing career and family life, I’m here to assist you on your journey.

I provide online therapy on a Wednesday daytime.

Dr Rebecca Money– Adult and Child Clinical Psychologist. Currently closed to new referrals

Dr Rebecca Money, Clinical Psychologist

I am Dr Rebecca Money, a HCPC registered Clinical Psychologist working both in the NHS and private practice. I have over 10 years experience of helping individuals and families who have experienced struggles with their mental health. Sometimes people come to see me if they have a specific area in their life they would like to change. Other times it may be to talk and understand previous experiences, or to explore more about themselves. I aim to offer a comfortable, empathic, and non-judgemental environment, asking questions such as ‘what has happened?’ rather than ‘what is wrong?’. I hope that my sessions offer a space where you feel safe and heard.

I work with children, adolescents, and adults, and I have worked in the NHS, local authority, and private services. My experiences and training mean that I can offer individualised therapy sessions based on our shared understanding of what is going on for you/your family. Here are some of the therapeutic approaches I regularly use to inform my work.

  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
  • Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT)
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
  • Systemic Approaches, such as Narrative Therapy

I have worked with a range of emotional difficulties, providing specialist assessment, formulation and evidence-based interventions tailored to individual needs including adapting intervention for neurodivergence. Within my sessions I have had experience supporting individuals with the following presentations:

  • Anxiety-related difficulties, such as:
      • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
      • Panic Attacks
      • Generalised Anxiety
      • Separation Anxiety
      • Phobias
      • Health Anxiety
  • Low mood (depression)
  • Emotional based school aversion
  • Family adjustment
  • Trauma
  • Anger
  • Low self-esteem
  • Perfectionism/Self-criticism
  • Attachment-related difficulties
  • Post diagnostic support of neurodivergence (e.g., Autism and ADHD diagnosis)

Rebecca accepts self-funding referrals and clients want support via WPA or BUPA health insurance. She has virtual availability on Wednesday lunchtimes.

 

Dr Grace Lee-Brindle- Perinatal and Adult Psychologist.

Dr Grace Lee-Brindle, Perinatal Psychologist

 

I’m a Senior Clinical Psychologist registered with the HCPC. I have ten years’ experience working in the NHS in the field of mental health. I specialise in perinatal mental health and supporting people at all stages of their parenting journey (from pregnancy to 2+ years postnatal), as well as in working with trauma.

I have experience of working with depression, anxiety, trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder, relationship and attachment difficulties, OCD, phobias, and parenting dilemmas. I have a special interest in parent infant relationships and bonding and recognise the importance of helping clients reflect on their past experience of being parented, and their journey to becoming parents, to help understand difficulties in this area. I also have extensive experience of working with those who have experienced trauma, including birth trauma.

I have training in the following therapeutic interventions:

  • Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)
  • Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) – Accredited Practitioner
  • Circle of Security Parenting
  • Parent Infant Psychotherapy (PIP)
  • Compassion Focussed Therapy (CFT)
  • Acceptance Commitment Therapy (ACT)
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
  • Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT) – level 2
  • I am also currently undertaking Advanced Parent Infant Practitioner Training (APIP)

I have a compassionate, collaborative, non-judgemental, flexible stance which allows me to tailor therapy to a client’s needs and goals. I offer online and face to face therapy (in Chichester) on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays.

 

 

Dr Jodie Finch– Currently closed to new referrals

Jodie is a highly specialist Clinical Psychologist with over 12 years of experience working in mental health

Dr Jodie Finch, Clinical Psychologist (BSc, MSc, ClinPsyD)

services, and over 6 years of experience working in trauma. Jodie currently works in an NHS maternal mental health service and independent practice and specialises in working with difficulties including birth trauma, pregnancy and baby loss, tokophobia and pregnancy related difficulties, adjustment to parenting and perinatal mental health.

Jodie began working in perinatal mental health following her own challenges during her journey to parenthood, and as a result is very passionate about this area. Jodie uses an integrative approach in her therapeutic work drawing upon principles from a range of models to meet your individual needs including

Trauma Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, EMDR, Compassion Focused Therapy, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Mindfulness Approaches and Attachment/Systemic Approaches. Jodie is registered with the Health and Care Professionals Council (HCPC).

Jodie accepts self-funding referrals and is registered with AXA, AVIVA, WPA and BUPA insurance.

 

Dr Sarah Hyland – Currently closed to new referrals

White women with blonde hair smiling to camera

Dr Sarah Hyland is a Specialist Clinical Psychologist

Dr Sarah Hyland is a Specialist Clinical Psychologist with experience in a variety of relationship and other problems with a special focus on perinatal, maternal mental health, baby loss and trauma. She is trained in a variety of psychological models within clinical psychology including psychoanalytic psychotherapy and attachment focused EMDR.

Dr Hyland has worked in the NHS for a number of years in psychotherapy departments focusing on both assessment and longer-term therapeutic work, with a wide range of difficulties. She currently works in a Maternal Mental Health Service in the NHS and has been a founder member of that service and a core member of the development team. She has experience working with baby loss, tokophobia (fear of childbirth), pregnancy after loss and birth trauma.

As well as her individual therapeutic work Dr Hyland undertakes a variety of specialist supervisions of other health professionals, including midwives, perinatal community psychiatric nurses and more junior psychologists. She also supports the medical teams in offering debriefs and reflective practice spaces when required.

In her private practice she has experience of working with people both shorter- and longer-term difficulties following early attachment trauma and other issues. She also works with associated problems of adjustment to pregnancy and parenthood in women who themselves have had a traumatic or complicated history.

Sarah accepts self-funding referrals and is registered with WPA and Healix insurance.

 

Dr Hannah Whitehead– Currently closed to new referrals.

Hannah specialises in working with children and teenagers experiencing anxiety and/or trauma. She supports parents and carers, as well as working with the child. She works creatively and playfully when appropriate and if my client welcomes it. She feels it is important to get to know each child as a unique individual and build on their strengths in sessions together. She works integratively, drawing upon several therapeutic models including Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), depending on what feels appropriate for each individual’s needs. She is also EMDR (trauma therapy trained).

She has worked in the NHS and third sector for over ten years, with both children and adults with a range of emotional and mental health difficulties. Her experience includes working in both local and national specialist CAMHS (Child & Adolescent Mental Health Service) and a specialist trauma service.

 

Dr Emma Hollywell– Currently closed to new referrals.

I work using an integrative approach, tailoring therapy to the needs of each individual to support clients to gain a greater understanding of themselves and make lasting changes.

I value each client’s individuality and my aim is to create a compassionate and collaborative therapeutic experience that reflects each client’s distinctiveness. I am an Accredited Schema Therapist with the ISST as well as an experienced DBT therapist (DBT British Isles trained) and EMDR therapist. I draw on these modalities as well as a range of therapeutic approaches, including Compassion Focused Therapy, to tailor the therapy to the client’s presenting issues. I specialise in helping people to heal from the symptoms and emotional distress resulting from traumatic life experiences.

Before becoming a Psychologist I held senior positions in a fast-paced marketing firm and witnessed first-hand the impact stress can have on well-being in the workplace. I am also a Senior Practitioner at a leadership and team development consultancy practice, so have strong insights into the complex challenges facing executives in the workplace, including the compounding pressure working parents face adjusting to family life.

My doctoral research examined the nature of compassionate care in the NHS and promoting compassionate care, self-compassion and well-being in the workplace, which are areas I remain passionate about.

I am a registered Psychologist with the HCPC and a Chartered Psychologist with the BPS. I also currently work as a lecturer and research supervisor on the City, University of London Counselling Psychology Doctorate programme (DPsych) and for the Postgraduate Certificate in Counselling Psychology.

 

Dr Jessica Roberts– Currently closed to new referrals.

Dr Jessica Roberts is a qualified Clinical Psychologist holding registration in both the UK and Australia. Her registration within the UK is with the Health and Care Professional Council (HCPC)- PYL34387. Jess has a real passion for helping young people. She is flexible, open and caring.

Jess has worked as a Clinical lead in a Tier 4 specialised child and adolescent hospital in London, prior to that she worked with children with autism and worked within the forensic population completing assessments with offenders. Jess has also worked for non-for-profit organisation supporting refugees with trauma as a senior advocate. Jess has experience working with interpreters to deliver assessment and treatment for patients for whom English is not their first language. Jess is now fully in private practice supporting adults, families and young people.

Jess’s main clinical modalities include Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and elements of Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) such as distress tolerance techniques, mindfulness and third wave CBT approaches. Jess also takes a relational approach in her work empathising the importance of rapport and trust between client and therapist.

Clinical interests

  • Perfectionism/low self esteem
  • Specific phobia
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
  • Eating disorders/Body dysmorphia
  • Anxiety disorders
  • ADHD
  • Autism
  • Emotional dysregulation
  • Social anxiety
  • Relationship difficulties
  • Adjustment disorder
  • Stress and exam anxiety

Dr Frankie Harrison- Currently closed to new referrals.

Frankie is a Clinical Psychologist who has worked with children and families; in community mental health teams and in paediatric services, including those who may be struggling with attachment difficulties and early developmental trauma. She also has a keen interest in working with parents through the perinatal period and beyond, especially with parents who may have encountered trauma associated with birth or through neonatal unit intervention (NICU).

 

Dr Alexandra Askew– Currently closed to new referrals.

Alexandra is a Clinical psychologist and qualified yoga teacher. She enjoys working therapeutically with adults. She offers a range of evidence based therapies including EMDR. Her full profile will be updated soon.

 

Dr John Burns- Currently closed to new referrals.

I am an experienced Consultant Clinical Psychologist registered with the British Psychological Society, Health and Care Professions Council, and the British Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies.

I have worked in various positions and different contexts in the NHS, working with adults, and young people. My most recent post in the NHS was as a Consultant Clinical Psychologist working across three prisons in Surrey. I bring a warm, open, and down-to-earth approach to my work and aim to provide a safe, confidential, and non-judgemental space to talk.

I have extensive experience of delivering psychological therapy with a wide range of problems including: anxiety, panic, phobias, OCD; trauma and abuse; low mood and depression; irritability and anger; loss and grief; problems with alcohol or drugs; problems related to self-esteem, identity, and self-worth; self-harming; struggles adjusting to life problems or changes; problems in relationships; difficulties getting the most out of your work or home life

​I can provide Schema Therapy, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, EMDR, or a more flexible and integrative therapy that is tailored to an individual’s particular need.

What to expect

The first stage of therapy aims to develop an understanding of the problems, how they started, what things might be them keeping going, and what strengths and coping mechanisms you draw on.

How therapy progresses is then dependent on the kinds of issues you want to explore. Some problems are better suited to a structured goal-orientated approach that aims to address current symptoms. In this case we would work together to agree a set of goals and a treatment plan. This type of therapy may be relatively short-term (e.g 6-20 sessions) but is dependent on the type and severity of the problems. 

Other problems may require a long-term approach that aims to work on a deeper level and could last several years. There may not be specific problems but a desire to explore things in a more open-ended way. Periodic reviews of the therapy would take place where you can discuss how you feel it is working and review ongoing goals for therapy.

Qualifications

  • Doctorate in Clinical Psychology University of Birmingham 2009
  • Diploma in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Royal Holloway 2010
  • Schema Therapy Schema Therapy Associates 2018
  • Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing EMDR accredited Trainer: Sian Morgan 2019

Dr Jennifer Vaughan– Currently closed to new referrals.

Hello! I’m Jennifer

I qualified as a Chartered Clinical Psychologist in 2011 and have significant experience working with adults experiencing a range of emotional health and/or physical health difficulties.

I’m an approachable, reliable and conscientious practitioner, with specialist interests in adult mental health, clinical health and clinical neuropsychological fields.  I’m Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) registered and a member of the British Psychological Society (BPS). I have enhanced Disclosure and Barring (DBS) clearance.

I completed my undergraduate psychology degree at The University of Sheffield and my Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at The University of Manchester. I completed a Postgraduate Diploma in Clinical Neuropsychology at The University of Glasgow. Finally, I have also completed a BPS-accredited supervisory training course at The University of Manchester.

Professional Experience

Throughout my career, I have worked in a range of NHS and independent settings, including within primary care (e.g., IAPT and GP services), secondary care (e.g., Mental Health Teams), hospital settings and forensic mental health services. My most recent position within the NHS was as a Principal Clinical Psychologist within a Neurorehabilitation Service, specialising in supporting people following experiencing traumatic incidents and physical illnesses.

I have worked with a wide-range of emotional and life-situation difficulties, providing highly specialist assessment, formulation and evidence-based interventions tailored to individual needs.  I have helped people in managing experiences of:

  • Anxiety including social anxiety, generalised anxiety, panic, obsessive compulsive disorder, health anxiety
  • Physical Health Conditions e.g. pain, chronic illness, weight management
  • Relationship Difficulties
  • Anger
  • Sleep Difficulties
  • Low Self Esteem
  • Worry
  • Neurological Conditions e.g. traumatic brain injury, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s
  • Stress and Managing Life Transitions
  • Depression
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)/Trauma
  • Bereavement/Loss
  • Childhood Abuse
  • Substance Use Difficulties e.g. drugs, alcohol
  • Work Related Problems

Approach / Therapies Offered

My doctoral training as a Clinical Psychologist has enabled me to draw on multiple theoretical models using an integrative and person-centred approach to support clients reach their goals within therapy and ultimately within their everyday lives.

I believe every person, their life experiences, and their values and goals are different and so tailoring sessions to ‘best fit’ each person is so important in ensuring the therapy is as helpful and supportive as possible.   Amongst others, the therapeutic models I use in include:

  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)
  • Cognitive Analytic Therapy (CAT)
  • Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
  • Compassion Focussed Therapy (CFT)
  • Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT)
  • Eye-Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR)
  • Cognitive Rehabilitation and Neuropsychological Approaches